Essay on Causes And Effects Of Colony Collapse Disorder

2204 Words Mar 22nd, 2015 null Page
In recent years, primarily beginning in 2005, the abandonment of hives, massive deaths within colonies themselves, and significant losses of entire populations of A. mellifera have been reported (Callahan 2014). This massive disruption in the population of A. mellifera is known as Colony Collapse Disorder, and the cause is multifactorial. Two underlying causes of Colony Collapse Disorder are disease and malnutrition, but are not the primary reason for the massive death tolls observed in the populations of A. mellifera. Disease causing pathogens tend to thrive in dark, moist, and warm environments, the conditions found with hives, and could escalate the damage of Colony Collapse Disorder. One study indicated a higher level of infection rates of Nosema, and Vorra mite within A. mellifera populations exposed to pesticides, suggesting that exposure to certain pesticides can decrease the strength of the immune response (Chen 2009) (Dively 2012). Similarly, malnutrition, often found within A. mellifera populations used in beekeeping can exacerbate Colony Collapse Disorder, but neither factors are the main cause of the disorder. The high levels of bee death has bee observed in studies observing the detrimental effects of pesticides, specifically imidaclorpid, clothianidin, and neonicotinoids (Callahan 2014). These pesticides, despite occurring in doses considered sub-lethal, dramatically reduce the ability of bees to prepare for winter. The exposure disrupts the winterization…

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