Essay on Grade 10 Science Ultimate Study Guide

996 Words Nov 23rd, 2011 4 Pages
Grade 10 Science ULTIMATE Study Guide
Biology – Key Concepts

Cell Cycle – The life of a cell (thug lyfe). This includes growth, DNA replication, prep for mitosis and mitosis.

Mitosis

Interphase; first growth phase: the cell produces new proteins and organelles. Synthesis phase: the dna is replicated in preporation for mitosis. Second growth phase: the cell produces the organelles and structures needed for cell division.

Prophase; Chromatic condense into chromosomes, which are sister chromatids at this point. The mitotic spindles form. In animal cells, centrioles will move to opposite ends of the cell. The nuclear structures and membranse break apart.

Metaphase; Chromatids line up at the cell’s equator and the mitotic
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Cancer cells divide so fast that they form a tumor. Cancer gets really bad when it metastisizes and goes to other organs and shit like that.

Cancer spreads 2 ways: invasion or metastasis. Invasion is the migration into neighboring tissues, metastasis is where the cancer gets into the bloodstream and travels all over the body.
Cancer is incureable, but there are 3 treatments. Chemotherapy: destroys cells which are in mitosis. Since cancer cells replicate fast they are targeted. Radiation: directed at tumors. Radiation mutates the dna of a cell, and since cancer cells have already mutated dna they cannot repair themselves as easily

Regeneration

Regeneration is the ability to regrow a tissue, organ or part of the body through mitosis.

Humans cannot regenerate because our bodies are made up of many complex cells and tissues.

Specialized cells are cells that have specific roles within the cell, as a resuilt they lose the ability to regenerate. Some specialized cells may never undergo mitosis again once they have specialized. Unspecialized cells are referred to as stem cells. Stem cells are cells that can become any other type of cell. Organisms that have many stem cells can regenerate because any cell can replace the ones that were lost, or the unspecialized cells that remain can become any that were lost.
Embryonic vs Adult stem cells

Embryonic

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