“The Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) of 1996 made it illegal to gain access to personal medical information for any reasons other than health care delivery, operations, and reimbursements” (Shi &ump; Singh, 2008, p. 166). “HIPAA legislation mandated strict controls on the transfer of personally identifiable health data between two entities, provisions for disclosure of protected information, and criminal penalties for violation” (Clayton 2001). “HIPAA also has privacy requirements that govern disclosure of patient protected health information (PHI) placed in the medical record by physicians, nurses, and other health care providers” (Buck, 2011). Always remember conversations about a patient’s health care or
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182). Health care budgets are limited throughout this world, making it hard for advancements yet even harder to develop the advancements with restraints. Which brings us back to the “social, ethical, and legal constraints, public and private insurers face the problem deciding whether or not to cover novel treatments” 188. Similarly what was mentioned before the decisions about “new reproductive techniques such as intracytoplasmic sperm injection in vitro fertilization (ICSIIVF), new molecular genetics predictive tests for hereditary breast cancer, and the newer drugs such as sildenafil (Viagra) for sexual dysfunction” (Giacomini, 2005). Ethical issues border the ways of clinical research, “Emanuel and colleagues (2000) contended that ethical clinical research must fulfill seven requirements”… “The privacy of enrolled subjects must be protected, they must be offered the opportunity to withdraw, and their well-being must be maintained throughout the trail” (Shi &ump; Singh, 2008, p. 188 &ump; 189).
When I think of the things that have been brought up on the ethical standpoint of in vitro and genetic testing, I honestly don’t see it to be as immoral or “unethical” these advancements have made improvements and history. Showing the ability of how technology and science can make a change and help people. I do think if it is putting harm onto others then that is when to question it. (Word count 336)
The proposals that might work in a universal access