Review of Literature Essay

624 Words Aug 30th, 2012 3 Pages
REVIEW OF LITERATURE

Clarke 2008 middle managers have the highest stress level simply because they are in the middle, which can cause a great deal of conflict. A survey conducted by the American Management Association indicated that 41% of middle management has more work than time. it add that middle managers must respond to sometimes conflicting demands from governmental agencies, union representatives, and the community, in addition to their supervisors and subordinates. They further found that middle managers under 30 years of age felt more stress than older managers because of confusion over lines of authority.

Suzanne M. Crampton 2009 Stress is found in all aspects of life. Hans Selye, a pioneer in stress research, has defined
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Madeline, 2011 Research in organizational behavior has shown that an individual could suffer from significant health complications - backaches, headaches, gastrointestinal disturbances, anxiety and depression amongst others - if subjected to stress over a long time. Behavioural changes in the form of excessive tobacco smoking and alcohol consumption, nervous disorders, heart diseases, diabetes, obesity etc are also related to stress. Job dissatisfaction is known to lead to job stress, which in turn reduces the productivity.

Young and Cooper, 2012 People in some work places experience more stress vis-a-vis others, particularly those in occupations where workers are required to display emotions like nursing, social work and teaching. An extreme form of this stress has been categorized as 'burnout', a stage when a person starts treating his clients as objects (depersonalization), evaluates himself negatively and feels emotionally exhausted . In such extreme cases, performance has been known to dip considerably and this drop in productivity can be attributed to the stress.
The above studies states that the mostly the middle management has more pressure. This is the reason for the stress. The individuals under 30 years are more stressed than the others due to the confusion over the line of authority.

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