The technique of gene cloning has important applications in medicine, biotechnology, agriculture and research.

1168 Words Dec 2nd, 2013 5 Pages
The technique of gene cloning has important applications in medicine, biotechnology, agriculture and research. Discuss two applications of this technique, which in your opinion, have had significant impact on society.

Gene cloning is achieved by inserting a required gene into a vector DNA. This produces Recombinant DNA and when introduced to a host cell the vector is copied. It divides to produce lots of copies of the gene of interest (Willey, Sherwood and Woolverton, 2012).
There are many applications of gene cloning, the two which will be discussed in this essay are; genetically modified crops and using genetic fingerprinting for identification and relationship testing.
Genetically modified crops can contain genes from sources
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Uncertainties are raised by tampering with nature; there are worries that genetically modified crops may have negative health implications, as well as reducing biodiversity.
Herbicide resistant plants can also pose their issue; when a plant is resistant to a single herbicide, it is possible for it to become resistant to another herbicide, using either the same or similar mechanism of action. Natural processes of selection can lead to this resistance being passed onto other plant species. This means that weeds may also develop the resistance gene. The numbers of resistant plants and weeds will increase until the majority of the population is herbicide-resistant. Consequently, there is worry of creation of a ‘super-weed’ which is resistant to all common herbicides. A similar problem is apparent in animals; antibiotic resistance. Genetically modified crops can contain antibiotic resistant gene markers which have potential to be passed onto humans, this would increase resistance to antibiotics and so viruses and disease would be more frequent (Bailey and Lappé, 2002).
Due to genetically modified foods being so desirable by the consumer, easy to grow by the producer and more widely available, poor farmers become poorer. They cannot afford to buy genetically modified seeds and quite often their land is not ideal for growth. This also means that the price of organic foods has risen. Genetically modified foods have led to rise that humans deserve the right to know what they

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