There is ongoing controversy regarding the issue of human cloning in countries such as the United States, the United Kingdom and Australia which have made attempts or have done research in reproductive cloning. Countries like Australia have prohibited human cloning in 2006. (NHMRC, 2007) Advocates who involve congress members, editorial writers, fertility specialists...and so on gave benefits of human cloning, yet not enough to justify the moral and ethical issues underlying the controversy. Human cloning refers to the creation of a genetically identical copy of an existing human or growing cloned tissue from that individual. This essay will illustrate the major ethical concerns associated with human cloning that lead to the conclusion
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(2002, 297) It is not necessarily the cloning process itself that violates rights of clones, but the implications of a successful creation of a human clone. They may be created with a certain purpose in the mind of the creator, or carrying pressure and social expectations, thus violating human rights and personal dignity of clones. The consequences of a person in his unrighteous mind creating an army of Hitler-alikes are unthinkable. Besides criticisms that clones may be used as an instrument, it is also claimed that as clones are genetic copies, whether he or she will be treated as an equal member of the community is a problem, even with the implementation of laws protecting rights and welfares of human clones, they may still be faced with prejudicial attitude others have towards them. (Wright, 2000) Given the issue of infringement of dignity and whether human clones are fully subject to all rights, it can be seen as a major ethical issue surrounding human cloning.
Finally, another ethical issue is that human clones may be harmed by expectations and demand from parents. It can be said that not only may human clones be harmed by physical risks in the process of cloning, but also the psychological effects which may have an even larger impact on the growth and development of human clones. They may be wronged in morally significant ways, for example, a child created from reproductive cloning may be