A Human Transporter Protein that Mediates the Final Excretion Step for Toxic Organic Cations

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Introduction

The kidney is an excretory organ that filters wastes from blood and excretes them as urine. Blood plasma filtration occurs at the glomerulus, which is a network of capillaries. Transporters are specialized proteins located in the membranes of the nephron. There are different concentrations of transporters located at various regions of the nephron. For instance, the proximal tubule retains most of the sodium transporters. Some transporters require adenosine triphosphate while others perform passive transport.

The method of excretion of toxic organic compounds in mammals is mainly through the kidney and liver. Toxic organic compounds are absorbed by the basolateral membranes and later excreted by brush
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Many of these environmental toxins are present in the form of organic cations(OC) found in the ingredients of many prescription drugs. In order to rid themselves of these waste products and toxins, they must be excreted primarily through the kidney and liver. Thus, in order to understand the research presented in this paper, one must have a thorough understanding of the way the kidney works.

The kidney is an excretory organ that filters wastes from blood and excretes them as urine. Blood plasma filtration occurs at the glomerulus, which is a network of capillaries> transporters are specialized proteins located in the membranes of the nephron. There are different concentrations of transporters located at various regions of the nephron. For instance, the proximal tubule retains most of the sodium transporters. Some transporters require adenosine triphosphate while others perform passive transport.

Previous studies have shown that there is a specific transporter that is responsible for the final step in the excretion process. However, these studies have not been able to determine the specific molecular identity of this transporter. One of the more common OC exporter recognizes a variety of compounds such as dopamine and choline(again, active ingredients in prescription drugs) and are thus identified as ?multidrug/polyspecific? exporters. The researchers hypothesized that the same protein in a

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